Image Artifact & Analysis
Artifacts & Documents Writing Assignments Teaching Guide Essays
About this Site


The Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies and the College Board collaborated on this Web site so that students will see objects and art works as primary sources that are worthy of historical investigation. The section titled "Consumerism" follows the text of the Smtihsonian publication Artifact & Analysis. The section "The Nation Expanding" is original to this site.

Many courses at various levels will benefit from the approach presented here, even though it targets the academic skills emphasized in the Advanced Placement Program U.S. History course. We intend our suggestions and exercises to be helpful in developing the skills assessed in the free response section, particularly the Document-Based Question of the AP U.S. History exam.

The Artifact and Analysis project team first assembled in the summer of 2000 to develop an educational program based on the research of Steven Lubar and Kathleen Kendrick of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Both Lubar and Kendrick wrote the essay that is the centerpiece of this publication. Readers may also wish to consult their book, Legacies: Collecting America's History at the Smithsonian (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001).

At the Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies Steve Binns, Gregor Kalas, Stephanie Norby, and Michelle Smith researched and wrote significant portions of the text. Troy Whitbread created a companion Website. At the College Board, Michael Johanek and Mary-Alice McCullough made extremely valuable contributions to the project. Uma Venkateswaran of the Education Testing Service reviewed materials and offered important guidance. Michael Henry of Prince George's College contributed his subject mastery and teaching expertise and also wrote portions of the content.

Others outside of the Smithsonian and the College Board also made valuable contributions. Sue Ikenberry and her students at Georgetown Day School reviewed a draft and tried out the strategies. Miriam Forman-Brunell of the university of Missouri at Kansas City contributed her thoughts on BarbieŽ. Regina Lee Blaszczyk of Boston University provided guidance on the Bibliography.

We owe sincere thanks to a highly professional group of teachers who considered the materials and offered their advice: Paul Armstrong (North East High School, North East, Maryland); Rita Brill (Rockville High School, Rockville, Maryland); William Broggy (Fox Lane High School, Bedford, New York); James Campbell (Maurice J. McDonough High School, Pomfret, Maryland); John K. Domville (Ridegwood High School, Ridgewood, New Jersey); Carol Eisenberg (Elizabeth High School, Elizabeth, New Jersey); Dennis Jutras (Baltimore Polytechnic Institute; Baltimoere, Maryland); Bruce Kline (Bohemia Manor High School, Chesapeake City, Maryland; Lorinda Krause (Lewisburg Area High School, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania); and Emma Melgarejo (Paint Branch High School, Burtonsville, Maryland).

Finally we wish to thank Brother International Corporation, Inc., whose financial support has made possible this and many other publications of the Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies.

Back Next

Home | Artifacts & Documents | Writing Assignments | Teaching Guide | Essays