Carbons to Computers

Online Resources

Below are Websites that relate to materials covered in this unit. Smithsonian sites are in red.

General Office Equipment

History of Calculating Machines
Design for Daily Life, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Museum of HP Calculators
This Olde Office
Yesterday's Office


Center for the History of Computing, Charles Babbage Institute
Computer History, Division of Computers, Information & Society,
National Museum of American History
The Computer Museum
Computer Museum of America
Computer Oral History Collection, Lemelson Center
Computerseum, Commercial Computing Museum
History of the Apple Computer
The Machine Room, Old Computer Database/Museum
The Machine that Changed the World
Memoir of a Homebrew Computer Club Member
Microsoft Computer Museum
The Trailing Edge, Computing's Last Stand
Obsolete Computer Museum
Triumph of the Nerds: A History of the Computer, by PBS
University of California, Davis Computer Science Museum
Virtual Museum of Computing


Antique Telephone Collectors Association
The Central Office
Cyber Telephone Museum
HELL'S BELLS: A Radio History of the Telephone
Museum of Independent Telephony
Telephone History Museum
Telephony History Pages


The Antique Typewriter Down Under Connection
Antique Typewriter Timeline
Classic Typewriter Page
Collecting old typewriters article
Early Typewriter Collectors Association
History of Typing
Pace O'Shea Antique Typewriter Museum
The Typewriter, article in Popular Mechanics

Other Related Sites

Information Age Exhibit, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Notable Women of Computing & Mathematics
Women and Computer Science
Frederick Taylor, Early Century Management Consultant
Frederick Taylor Collection, Stevens Institute of Technology


Augarten, Stan. Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1984.

Bliven, Bruce. The Wonderful Writing Machine. New York: Random House, 1954.

Brooks, John. The Telephone: The First Hundred Years. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

Chandler, Arthur. The Invisible Hand. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1977.

Dertouzos, Michael L. "Communications, Computers, and Networks," Scientific American (September 1991): 66.

Ewen, Stuart. All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

Finn, Nancy. The Electronic Office. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1983.

Forty, Adrian. Objects of Desire: Design and Society from Wedgwood to IBM. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.

Hughes, Thomas P. American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870-1970. New York: Viking, 1989.

Jana, Reena. "Once and Future Stuff," The New York Times Magazine, March 8, 1998.

Kidwell, Peggy A., and Paul E. Ceruzzi. Landmarks in Digital Computing. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Lubar, Steven. InfoCulture: The Smithsonian Book of Information Age Inventions. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993.

Lupton, Ellen. Mechanical Brides: Women and Machines from Home to Office. New York: Cooper-Hewitt, National Museum of Design, Smithsonian Institution: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993.

Matthaei, Julie A. An Economic History of Women in America: Women's Work, the Sexual Division of Labor, and the Development of Capitalism. New York: Schocken Books, 1982.

Monaco, Cynthia. "The Difficult Birth of the Typewriter." Invention & Technology, Spring/Summer 1988.

Oliveno, Mary Ellen, and William R. Passewark. The Office: Procedures and Technology. San Antonio, Tex.: South-West Publishing Co., 1988.

Owen., David. "Copies in Seconds," The Atlantic Monthly, February 1986.

Palfremun, Jon, and Doron Swade. The Dream Machine: Exploring the Computer Age. New York: BBC Books Parkwest Publications, 1992.

Pecar, Joseph A., Roger J. O'Connor, and David A. Garbin. The McGraw-Hill Telecommunications Factbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Roberts, Lawrence G. "The ARPANET and Computer Networks." In: Adele Goldberg, ed. A History of Personal Workstations. New York: ACM Press, 1988.

Stephens, Carlene, and Steven Lubar. "A Place for Public Business: The Material Culture of the Nineteenth-Century Federal Office," Business and Economic History, Vol.15, 1986.

Talbott, Page. "The Office in the 19th Century," Wooton Patent Desks. Indianapolis, Ind.: Indiana State Museum, 1983.

Strassman, Paul A. The Information Payoff: The Transformation of Work in the Electronic Age. New York: Free Press, 1985.

Williams, Michael R. A History of Computing Technology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985.

Yates, Joanne. Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

Introduction || Birth and Growth of the American Office || Office Equipment
Office Organization || Global Office || Conclusion
Historical Timeline || Lesson Plans || Resources || Site Contents
Home (text) || Home (graphics)

Smithsonian Education

Contact with any questions or comments

Smithsonian Institution Copyright 1998